Ottoman period (1669-1898)
The Ottomans tried several times to occupy Crete during the end of the Venetian period. Most prominent amongst those, was the Hairentin Barbarosa invasion in 1538 that after failing to capture Chandax, his armies retreated from the occupied parts of Crete.
In 1645 the Ottomans landed in Crete and within 2 years they had seized most of the fortresses and towns of Crete. Lastly, they went for Chandax, the siege of which, against the united Venetians and Cretans, lasted for 21 years. At the end, Chandax fell to the hands of the Ottomans and the only region of Crete that still free was Sfakia, which however, paid taxes to the Ottoman empire.
Already from the beginning of the Ottoman occupation, Cretan started waging guerrilla warfare and organised several, albeit failed, revolutions. Between 1830 and 1841 Crete was administered by Egypt. Several bloody insurgencies against the Ottomans followed during the last half of the 19th century; the apogee of which was the 1895 revolution.